Milk and dairy products
Milk and dairy products are important foods for our bodies and should be represented in the diet with 7 - 10 % of the total food intake.
Milk is the product of mammary glands of mammals (e.g., cows and goats), and contains all the substances necessary for the growth and development of a young organism.
The quality of these foods depends on several factors:
- Type of animals
- Age of animals
- Animal nutrition
- General health of an animal
This food has high water content (85 %) and therefore is low in energy and calories. On the other hand, it is known as a complete food, because it contains a lots of vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin B1, B2, B5) and proteins of high quality.
This food is an important source of minerals (mainly calcium and phosphorus) that are needed in a period of growth and development which mainly relates to children. Since it contains substances that are essential for the skeletal system of the body, it is necessary to use these foods in people who have weak bones.
Make sure that you keep it properly, Because of its high water content, milk and dairy products present a good nutrient environment for the growth of microorganisms. You must refrigerate milk and its products at a temperature of 10 - 25 ° C. After opening, it should not be kept longer than 2 days.
I should note that milk contains a certain percentage of fat. There are different variants on the market (from 0 % to 3.5 % fat). I believe that it is completely unnatural for milk have no fat at all, because it means that it has been subjected to different chemical processes, whereby it loses quality. High quality milk should be white-yellow, translucent, with a mild and sweet taste. I do not advocate the idea that you need to buy milk with a high fat content, but do not buy milk with 0 % of fat. The best milk is the one containing 1 – 2 % of fat.
Dairy products can be divided into acidic and fatty dairy products.
Acidic dairy products include:
- Sour milk
These types of products are produced by fermentation of milk by lactic bacteria.
The advantages of these foods include:
- They have a longer shelf life
- They are good for the normalization of intestinal flora and digestion
- They represent a very rich source of proteins and B vitamins
- They have lower lactose content (especially suitable for people who are lactose intolerant)
Fatty dairy products
The fatty dairy products include:
- Cream cheese
- Sour cream
As their name implies, these types of products are rich in fats (butter has up to 75 % of fats).
Cheese is made by adding certain enzymes to the milk, whereby a main protein of the milk (casein) is turned into para-casein and cheese. The liquid that remains after making cheese is called whey. Whey is composed primarily of proteins (mainly containing albumin and globulin complexes with lactose). It is the best natural source of protein, and it is recommended for athletes and children. I have personally experienced the power of this food. In high school, I was very skinny and the doctor recommended that I take whey from the local dairy farms. After a month of taking whey, I put on some weight and more importantly, my body was developed more properly (I’ve got wide shoulders), although at the time I was not physically active at all. It is best to buy whey directly from local dairy farms, because whey from the market has almost certainly undergone various chemical processes which reduce its effectiveness and quality.
Moreover, the so-called "young cheese" is softer and contains more water and less calories, while "old cheese" contains less water and more calories. Cheese and all other fatty milk products are considered as high-calorie food, which is why these foods should be eaten in moderation.
Therefore, milk and its products are necessary for the body, while their intake should be greater in children and moderate in adults.